Chem Project

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Description

CRUDE OIL

Oindri Mandal

WHAT IS CRUDE OIL oA finite non-renewable resource oContain many different hydrocarbons, ranging in size oProperties: As the size of the molecule increases, the –  Boiling point increases Liquids become less volatile Liquids become more viscous  Liquids become darker Burn less easily

As the size increases, the IM force increases

SEPERATING CRUDE OIL – FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION 40 C

oFirst, the crude oil is vaporized in a heater. oThe vapors are passed into a column known as the fractionating column.

Refinery gases Gasoline

oThe fractionating column is cooler at the top and hotter at the bottom, having a temperature gradient ranging from (40 C - 400 C) o The vapors rise up the fractionating column and condense when they reach their respective condensation points. o How far up a particular hydrocarbon travels depends on its boiling point i.e., larger hydrocarbons have higher condensation point and condense at the hotter bottom part of the column while smaller hydrocarbons travel upward. They condense that part of the test tube where the temperature is below their condensation points CRUDE OIL

HEATER

Kerosene Diesel oil Fuel oil

Bitumen 400 C FRACTIONATIN G COLUMN

USES OF THE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS o Refinery gases: used as LPG, for domestic heating and cooking oGasoline(Petrol): used as a fuel in cars oKerosene: fuel for jet aircrafts and lamps oDiesel: fuel for buses, lorries and trucks oFuel oil: fuel for ships, industrial heating oBitumen: mixed with small pieces of rock to create a coating for roads

INDUSTRIAL CRACKING o Cracking is a chemical process by which large alkanes are broken down into smaller alkanes and alkenes. oIn industries, cracking is carried out at a temperature of 600 C – 700 C oIt is caried out in the presence of alumina or silica, as a catalyst. oCracking is carried out because: To produce more smaller alkanes which are better fuels and are in more demand, crude oil may contain more of larger alkanes and less of the more useful smaller alkanes To produce more alkenes that can undergo polymerization and be converted to plastics. oExample of cracking equation : (g) + (g) + (l)

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