chemistry project

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Snacks (MAMEE)

Ingredient: Wheat flour that contains Gluten), Palm Oil that contains antioxidant which is Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Onion, Corn Starch, Salt, Flavour Enhancers that are Monosodium Glutamate, Disodium 5’ribonucleotides, Sugar, Flavouring Substances that contains Soybean, Spices, Stabilisers which are Triphosphates, Potassium Carbonate and Guar Gum, Artificial Sweetener which is Sucralose

The first ingredient I want to introduce is Butylated Hydroxytoluene which acts as antioxidant  Also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene,  A lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative of phenol, that is useful for its antioxidant properties.

These are the three structures of BHT which are in


Molecular Formula


Crystal form

C15H24O or C6H2(OH)(CH3)(C(CH3)3)2

Phytoplankton, including the green algae Botryococcus braunii, as well as three different cyanobacteria are capable of producing BHT as a natural product

Next, let’s look at its functions  BHT is used in foods that contain oil and fat.  Used as a food additive  It functions as an antioxidant for preventing spoilage of fats and oils in baked goods by binding oxygen molecules.

Oxygen molecules react preferentially with BHT rather than oxidizing the fats or oils.  It may damage the protective outer layer of viral cells. This may keep the viruses from multiplying and/or doing more damage.  It also preserves food aroma, colour, and flavour.

Although BHT has been used in food additive, it also has side effects that includes  Inducing allergic reactions in the skin and act as a tumour promoter in certain situations

Long-term exposure to high doses of BHT causes liver, thyroid and kidney problems and affecting lung function and blood coagulation  It may also mimic oestrogen, the primary female sex hormone, and prevent expression of male sex hormones, resulting in adverse reproductive affects.

2. Then, we will see monosodium Glutamate that act as flavouring agent  MSG is derived from the amino acid glutamate, or glutamic acid, which is one of the most abundant amino acids in nature.  It was first prepared in 1908 by Japanese biochemist Kikunae Ikeda  It can be found naturally in some foods including tomatoes and cheese

What are the functions of Monosodium glutamate?  First, it can be used as an ingredient to enhance the natural flavours of foods  MSG in food activates glutamate receptors in the taste buds. These transmit signals to distinct regions of the brain, causing the characteristic taste.  Besides, it is used as a partial replacement for salt.

Again, MSG has its side effects too.  It can cause headache, muscle tightness, numbness, tingling, weakness and flushing.  Furthermore, we may have sweating and facial pressure or tightness  Tingling or burning in the face, neck and other areas is also one one its symptoms.  Sometimes, people may experience rapid, fluttering heartbeats (heart palpitations), chest pain, nausea and blurred vision in the long run.

3. The third ingredient we will see is Guar Gum which is classified as stabiliser  Gum is derived from guar seeds or cyamopsis tetragonoloba termed as Guar Gum.  can also be termed as guaran  Guar Gum is relatively cost effective as compared to other thickeners and stabilizers because it is high on galactose and mannose

The guar or cluster bean is an agricultural crop grown in arid zones of West and North-West India, Pakistan, Sudan and parts of USA.  Rajasthan in western lndia is the major guar producing state, accounting for 70% of the production

Function  Guar gum endosperm is a source of water soluble gum which is used as a thickening, stabilizing, suspending, and binding agent.  It serves as a fiber deflocculent and dry-strength additive  Guar gum has a tendency to clump when added to liquids, so you can shake it into liquids while whisking at a high speed to keep your food smooth and thick.

Benefit  The good news is that Guar Gum can relieve constipation. It is believed that taking guar gum by mouth will relieve constipation in some adults and children.  Moreover, it can lower high cholesterol in our health.  A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach painwhich is irritable bowel syndrome , IBS can be relieved by taking guar gum by mouth. In this way, Guar Gum might reduce stomach pain and improve bowel function and quality of life in people with IBS.

Side effect  Cause gas production, diarrhea, and loose stools.

 These side effects usually decrease or disappear after several days of use.  High doses of guar gum or not drinking enough fluid with the dose of guar gum can cause blockage of the esophagus and the intestines.

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